Повторение причастий и причастных оборотов


1. Most of the tongues spoken today are very young indeed, having appeared within the last two thousand years. Many of them, however, were probably spoken long before, but simply did not get into the written form.

2. Forbidden by his father to take part in the fight, he was discontented, and mixing with the crowd of spectators, had followed after. Though a child, he was a born soldier, and when he saw his father slain he too fell fighting on the same battlefield, leaving a name behind.

3. There were occasions when the Dutch were permitted to cross the bridge, but they were guarded closely and remained effectively isolated, being allowed to do little more than thank the Japanese for their many favours.

4. As printed, each sentence is divided into a number of words, and it is a general belief that a spoken sentence consists of a number of separate sounds.

5. Performances given in our country by actors from different countries have testified to the great cultural advances being made by the countries concerned.

6. «You and he came here a week before me», — Here you refers to the person spoken to; he refers to some person spoken of, whose name has been mentioned in a previous sentence; me refers to the person speaking without naming him. So all these words are pronouns.

7. He accepted it as established that the Melanesian languages were legitimate members of the Austronesian family.

8. Across Tolland Sand we had our first view of Polperro, one of the quaintest and picturesque villages I have ever seen. Built on a rocky and steep valley, its houses push each other down along narrow streets to the sea with its boats and fishermen and screaming gulls.

9. In Finland until modern times the only literary language known was the foreign language, Swedish, used by the upper classes, the Finnish language spoken by the mass of the people being looked down.

10. The heroine's rough peasant speech, is, for instance, perfectly in keeping with 80 her character as presented at the beginning of the play.

11. Speaking somewhat inexactly, it may be said that language is the product of the thought of a nation.

12. The cultural layers and relics such as bricks, coins and other remains found in the vicinity, enabled us to identify the draining system as having been constructed at the latest during the Chin Dynasty.

13. Semantic criteria can obviously be stated for all the functions along the lines already followed for negation, conjunction and alteration.

14. He (Robert Southey) was also a good prose writer, the best known of his prose works being «The Life of Nelson».

15. Arnold Zweig had scarcely any vision left and must have everything read to him.

16. New words are best learned in an inductive way, i. e. when found applied, when seen in their proper surroundings.

17. Some modern scholars think of the Anglo-Saxons as being substantially one people, while others adhere to the distinction drawn between the Angles and the Saxons.

30 in keeping with — в соответствии с . 102

18. She heard him coming up the stairs slowly, as if he were carrying something heavy.

19. Asked what changes had taken place in the life in the country he replied that a comparison between the last two years would suffice to throw light on this question.

20. Charing Gross is an open space to the South of Trafalgar Square; here until removed by Parliament during the Civil War (1647) stood Eleanor' Cross, a Gothic monument, erected in 1291 by Edward I, the Bloody Conqueror and oppressor of Wales and Scotland.

21. The basic masculine garment was a chiton, of which there were two distinct styles, the Doric and the Ionic, each of these being subject to 31 sundry variations.

22. The medieval school libraries in London have been neglected to a considerable extent. In many cases, there has been no librarian, except, perhaps, a honorary one, he being a member of the teaching staff, and the books have been dealt with in a fashion not deemed likely to make the collection as valuable to staff or students as it might be.

23. Neither title is good enough for this play — the first having a slightly academic tang about it, and the second seems reminiscent of a non-very-important second- feature film.

24. The coffee drunk in the famous coffee-houses of that period was imported by the East India Company.

25. In several African languages the words meaning «tomorrow» and «yesterday» are often identical, the particular meaning required being decided upon by the «Tense» of the verb used in the context.

26. Geographically, the term «West Africa» covers an area of about three million square miles, extending as it does to include the coastal lands from Senegal to the Cameroons.

27. As already observed, the work under consideration32 is not primarily linguistic in nature and does not introduce new linguistic data.

28. The position of this man being one of great responsibility and honour, he naturally became the subject of observation to all the numerous members of this great household.

31 to be subject to — подвергаться, быть подверженным чему-то. 32 under consideration — рассматриваемый

29. The port referred to was also used as an arsenal and as a convict settlement.

30. The ancient inhabitants of the British Islands spoke a language similar to Welsh, and only a few of their words, and these chiefly geographical, remain in the language now spoken by the English people.

31. Laws of every Southern State were framed so as to make provisions for this «legal relationship» between master and slave which was inherently fallacious in that it defied the very essence of Christianity accepting as it did the fact that there were two types of human being — the master type and the slave type.

32. «The vision of Don Roderick» is a poem on Spain when invaded by the Moors, when at her greatest in the sixteenth century, and during the Peninsular War.

33. In each case he (the white man) is regarded as clothed in white cloth or paint, as having arrived from the East and as having a beard.

34. Music and maps are consulted in the two reading rooms, rare and valuable items being reserved for consultation in the North library.

35. The people of France, threatened in their national independence, have rallied in a common front to maintain their liberties and to make their country free, strong and happy.

36. But as civilization increased, and it became necessary to use single languages over wide areas, an immense number of languages spoken only by small and obscure communitees became extinct — a process which we can observe going on still.

37. Although it is sometimes said that speakers of two different English dialects cannot understand each other, it is doubtful whether such a statement is ever really true, given intelligence, patience and cooperation in both speaker and hearer.

38. The northern end of the great sand-dune, spoken of as lying between the cape and the town, has in its progress inland buried from view several hundred feet of deposit near its southeastern limits.

39. Confined to a narrow strip of coast and isolated from the Mediterranean by its position outside of the strait of Gibraltar, it was natural that Portugal should turn its attention to the navigation at the Atlantic.

40. The heavy blocks of pyramids and temples in civilized Egypt had been dragged in the place up to specially constructed ramps by brute human labour-power unaided by any mechanical devices.

41. Faced with conflicting dialect forms for the same words, Caxton 33 admitted that he was disturbed. He disapproved of such variety, attributing it naively to the variable English temperament.

42. Burns brought to perfection the poetry of song and ballad which Allan Ramsey had begun, and which was continued in Scotland throughout the eighteenth century, being especially capably handled by Robert Fergusson whom Burns acknowledged as his master.

43. The novel is written partly in stage dialogue, with the name of the speaker preceding the words in the way a play is printed, and partly in narrative.

44. Bernard Shaw was brought up in an atmosphere of musical culture, his mother being intensely fond of music.

45. The bow and the stern (of the boat) were both pointed, and not unlike in their general outlines, the latter being more blunt than the former.

46. To the East Constantinople is closely linked with the coastal fringe of Asia Minor, the city being in reality as much a part of Asia as of Europe.

47. When writing about some strange South Sea culture, there is the persistent difficulty of translating strange native ideas into English.

48. The paragraph given below, it will be noticed, is one sentence. Observe the minute care given to the punctuation, the aptness of the epithet, and the rhythm, which in several places is so regular that the matter can be scanned like poetry.

49. Given this marked ethnographic similarity between Palaeolithic man and primitive peoples of the present — it appears very possible that various funeral customs were practised during the late Paleolithic in the same region and by the same people.

50. The carving was evidently intended to represent a fish, with some peculiar ideas of the artist added and several important characters left out.

Caxton — Кэкстон (1492), первый английский книгопечатник





Герундий — неличная форма глагола, обозначающая действие и сочетающая в себе свойства глагола и существительного. По форме герундий совпадает с причастием I и перфектным причастием.

Формы герундия

Indefinite Active Passive
writing being written
Perfect having written having been written

В отличие от причастия перед герундием в тексте стоит предлог, существительное в притяжательном или общем падеже или притяжательное местоимение:

The author has succeeded in basinghis study on sound principles.

Автору удалось основатьсвое исследование на здравых принципах.

In spite of his being tiredwe had to disturb him.

Несмотря на то, что он устал,нам пришлось побеспокоить его.

I have been told of your friend's comingsoon.

Мне сказали, чтоваш друг скоро приедет.

В отличие от причастия, употребляемого главным образом в функции определения и обстоятельства, герундий может употребляться в функциях подлежащего и дополнения:

Collecting rare books was his favourite occupation.

Коллекционирование редких книг было его любимым занятием (Собирать редкие книги было его любимым делом).

Не likes reading aloud. Он любит читать вслух,

В том случае если герундий употребляется в функции определения и обстоятельства, перед ним стоит предлог (который никогда не ставится перед причастием):

In studyingthe inscriptions they applied a new method of deciphering.

При изучении (изучая)надписей они применили новый метод расшифровки.

Герундий, совпадая по форме с отглагольным существительным на -ing, отличается от последнего следующими признаками.

1) Имеет залоговые различия; ср.:

Не likes showing (Act.) his photographs. Он любит (ему нравится) показывать свои фотографии. The child likes being shown (Pass.) pictures. Ребенку нравится, когда ему показывают картинки (Ребенок любит, чтобы ему показывали картинки).

2) Формы герундия, не имея, как и причастие, самостоятельного значения времени, могут выражать действие, одновременное или предшествующее действию, выраженному сказуемым.

Герундий Indefinite обычно обозначает действие, одновременное действию, выраженному сказуемым (или будущее по отношению к нему):

I know about his returning from Moscow. Я знаю о том, что он возвращается из Москвы (Я знаю о его возвращении из Москвы).

Герундий Perfect обозначает действие, предшествующее действию, выраженному сказуемым:

I know about his having returned from Moscow. Я знаю о том, что он возвратился из Москвы (Я знаю о его возвращении).

Примечание. После глаголов to excuse, to forgive, to thank, to remember и предлогов on (upon), after герундий Indefi-

nite может иметь значение предшествующего действия по отношению к действию, выраженному сказуемым:

I remember seeing him there.

Я помню, что видел его там.

3) Герундий от переходных глаголов может принимать прямое дополнение (в то время как отглагольное существительное принимает предложное дополнение); ср.:

Writing(Ger.) comedies took all his time. Писаниекомедий занимало все его время. The writing(Verb, n.) of his work occupied seventeen years.

Написаниеего труда заняло семнадцать лет.

4) В отличие от отглагольного существительного герундий не принимает форму множественного числа, не употребляется с артиклем и определяется наречием, а не прилагательным (как отглагольное существительное).

Герундий можно переводить следующим образом.

1) Р1нфинитивом:

She stopped answeringmy letters.

Она перестала отвечатьна мои письма.

2) Отглагольным существительным:

After finishingschool he went on an expedition. После окончанияшколы он поехал в экспедицию.

3) Деепричастием:

In examiningthe manuscript the historian discovered a curious detail.

Рассматриваярукопись, ученый обнаружил один любопытный факт (подробность).

4) Личной формой глагола в функции сказуемого придаточного предложения, вводимого союзом «что (чтобы)» с предшествующим ему соотнесенным местоимением «то» в соответствующем падеже (тем, что: в том, что. . . и т. п.):

This volume differs from the previous in embracinga wider range of subjects.

Этот том отличается от предыдущего тем, что охватываетболее широкий круг вопросов.