Module 8


1 - Fully Fashioned machines

2 - Flat Knitting machines

3 - Circular Knitting machines

4 - Single Jersey machines

5 - Double jersey machines

6 - cut & sewn production

7 - shaping

8 - integral knitting


10 - carriage


1. What manufacturing sectors can the knitting industry be divided? The knitting industry can be divided into four manufacturing sectors, these are: fully fashioned, flat knitting, circular knitting and warp knitting.

2. What machinesproduce plain “classical” styled wool knitwear by producing panels? Fully Fashioned Machinesproduce plain “classical” styled wool knitwear by producing panels.

3. How many sets of needles do Fully Fashioned machines have? Generally Fully Fashioned machines only have one set of needles.

4. What parts does a knitted garment typically consist of? Typically, a knitted garment consists of separate parts - the front and back body panels and the sleeves, which are sewn together afterward.

5. What machines have two flat beds facing each other? Double bed machines have two flat beds facing each other.

Texts for listening

Unit 1

Textiles Design

Every textile product is designed: that is, it is made specially to some kind of plan. Design decisions are made at every stage in the manufacturing process – what fibres should be used in yarn, what yarns in fabric, what weight of fabric should be produced, what colour should the yarn or fabric be produced in, what fabric structures should be used and what finish applied. These decisions may be made by engineers and technologists in the case of industrial or medical textiles where performance requirements are necessary. More often in the case of apparel, furnishing and household textiles it is done by designers trained in aesthetics, technology and marketing. The designers found in the textile and clothing industries are usually involved throughout the design process, beginning from initial identification of need, through research, generation of initial design ideas, design development and testing to the product specification.

Unit 2

1. Textile is a branch of light industry.

2. Textile program students obtain Bachelor of Arts degree.

3. Textile manufacturing begins with fibre production.

4. Yarn production is converting fibre into fabric.

5. Textile students don’t study design.

6. Dyeing and finishing sciences are taught to students studying textile chemistry.

7. Our university also prepares students to obtain Master of Science degree.

8. Our graduates fill positions in aircraft-building companies.

9. Textile students study machinery enrolled in textile manufacturing.

10. Students obtaining MS and DPh degrees must carry out research.

Unit 3

Flax, its properties and use

Flax was probably the first vegetable fibre to be used by man for making textiles. Specimens of flax have been found in the pre-historic dwellings of Switzerland, and in the tombs of ancient Egypt.

Flax fibre comes from the stem of an annual plant, which grows in many temperate and sub-tropical regions of the world. In the bark of this plant there are long, slender, thick-walled cells of which the fibre strands are composed.

In many of its properties linen closely resembles cotton. But flax is a stronger fibre than cotton. It is extremely durable. Flax is a particularly inextensible fibre. It stretches only slightly as tension increases. Linen fabrics tend to crease, but this can be overcome by modern crease-resisting treatment. Linen goods absorb about 12 per cent of moisture from the surrounding air. Flax is a good conductor of heat. This is one of the reasons why linen sheets feel so cold.

Unit 4

Yarn formation

Since man-made fibres are synthesized from organic chemicals, yarn formation of man-made fibres does not involve cleaning and combing procedures as in case with natural fibres. Man-made fibres, both synthetic and cellulosic, are manufactured using spinning processes that resemble the manufacture of silk. Spinning, in terms of man-made fibre production, is the process of forming fibres by forcing a liquid through a small opening. Then the extruded liquid solidifies to form a continuous filament. After spinning, the man-made fibres are stretched to align the polymer molecules and strengthen the filament. Man-made filaments may then be texturized or otherwise treated to simulate physical characteristics of spun natural fibres. Texturizing is often used to curl or crimp straight rod-like filament fibres to simulate the appearance, structure, and feel of natural fibres.

Spun yarns are created using man-made fibres that have been cut into staple length fibres. Staple-length fibres are then used to process fibres on wool or cotton system machinery. Methods for making spun yarn from man-made fibres are similar to those used for natural fibres.

Fibres can also be produced as filament yarn, which consists of filament strands twisted together slightly. In mills, filament fibres are wound onto bobbins and placed on a twisting machine to make yarn. Filament yarns may be used directly to make fabric or further twisted to the desired consistency.

Unit 5